Novas receitas

Black River Pearl

Black River Pearl

  1. Casa
  2. Bebida
  3. Coquetéis e destilados

4.5

2 avaliações

14 de fevereiro de 2017

Por

The Daily Meal Staff

Esta libação afrodisíaca é perfeita para o Dia dos Namorados

Foto e receita cortesia de D’USSÉ.

1

Porções

199

Calorias por porção

Ingredientes

  • 1 1/3 partes D’USSÉ VSOP Cognac
  • 1/2 parte de licor beneditino
  • 1/2 parte de vinho de ameixa japonesa (Umeshu)
  • 2 Traços de bitters de toranja
  • 1 pitada de bitters de chocolate

Instruções

Combine todos os ingredientes e mexa delicadamente.

Despeje em um copo de tulipa.

Para enfeitar, adicione pequenas flores.

Fatos Nutricionais

Porções 1

Calorias por dose 199

Sugar11gN / A

Carboidratos 14g5%

Cálcio 6mg1%

Folato (alimento) 0,7µgN / A

Equivalente de folato (total) 0,7µg 0,2%

Ferro 0,3mg 1,7%

Magnésio 9mg2%

Niacina (B3) 0,2 mg 0,8%

Fósforo 17mg 2%

Potássio 81 mg 2%

Sódio 6mg N / A

Zinco 0,1 mg 0,8%

Tem alguma pergunta sobre os dados nutricionais? Nos informe.

Tag


Rio Preto

O Black River desempenhou um papel significativo, mas inconstante, na vida dos residentes do nordeste do Arkansas. Para os primeiros nativos americanos que viviam na área, era uma fonte essencial de alimento e transporte. Isso permaneceu verdadeiro para os colonos europeus na época anterior às estradas e ferrovias. O rio também era uma “rodovia” essencial para os barcos chatos e barcos a vapor que transportavam pessoas e mercadorias de e para a área. O rio apoiou o desenvolvimento da indústria local como meio de transporte de madeira das florestas para locais como Sallee Brothers Handle Mill em Pocahontas (Condado de Randolph), enquanto a pesca do mexilhão fornecia pérolas e madrepérolas para a indústria local de botões para muitos anos. Embora o rio não funcione mais como meio de transporte, ele continua a ser um importante local de recreação para caça, pesca, caminhadas, observação de pássaros, passeios de barco e muito mais. O advogado e escritor de Batesville (Condado de Independence) “Fent” Noland declarou em 1839: “O país que fica acima de White River e do Black está destinado a ser o melhor de Arkansas. A natureza fez tudo o que podia - o homem fará o resto. ”

A nascente do Rio Negro está no sudeste do Missouri. É formado por três rios, flui para o sul e cruza a fronteira do Arkansas no Condado de Clay a nordeste de Corning. De lá, flui geralmente para o sudoeste e passa pela Área de Manejo da Vida Selvagem de Dave Donaldson Black River (WMA), pelo Condado de Randolph até Pocahontas e desce até o Parque Estadual Histórico de Davidsonville. Ele atravessa o condado de Lawrence logo acima da cidade de Black Rock e continua a sudoeste até a comunidade de Powhatan (condado de Lawrence). De lá, ele flui para o sul através do WMA de Shirey Bay – Rainey Brake, cruza a fronteira sul do condado de Lawrence e forma a fronteira leste-oeste entre os condados de Independence e Jackson. Finalmente vira para sudeste e entra no White River em Jacksonport (Jackson County), ao norte de Newport (Jackson County). Seus afluentes do Arkansas são os rios Little Black, Spring e Strawberry e, com sua conexão com o rio White, faz parte da bacia hidrográfica do rio Mississippi. O Black tem várias curvas acentuadas, muitas com nomes coloridos, como Deadman e Hole in the Wall na área do Parque Estadual Histórico de Davidsonville, junto com as curvas Box Factory, Battle Axe e Dead Mule no curso inferior do rio.

O rio e os WMAs através dos quais ele flui fornecem oportunidades abundantes para caçadores, pescadores, caminhantes e observadores da vida selvagem. As principais espécies de peixes dentro dela são largemouth bass, tipo de peixe e bagre. A caça de patos, esquilos, veados, coelhos e perus são populares ao longo de seu curso, e os WMAs de Donaldson e Shirey Bay oferecem um excelente habitat para reservatórios de árvores verdes (lago com patos na floresta). Há também uma população de peles, como castores, ratos almiscarados, visons e guaxinins. Numerosas águias carecas e douradas passam o inverno ao redor do Lago Ashbaugh na Donaldson WMA e podem ser avistadas no lago ou ao redor dele de novembro a fevereiro.

O Black e seus arredores têm uma história fascinante, sendo habitados primeiro por construtores de montículos pré-colombianos, depois pelos Osage e Cherokee. Os primeiros colonizadores europeus foram franceses. Antes da penetração das ferrovias na área, os barcos chatos e os barcos a vapor eram essenciais para transportar pessoas e mercadorias, oferecendo o único transporte “da fazenda ao mercado”. O primeiro barco a vapor a subir o Rio Negro até Pocahontas foi o Louro em 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas e Jacksonport eram portos importantes para barcos a vapor e, na virada do século, cerca de 43 barcos a vapor viajavam pelo rio. Um era o Idlewild, que ainda está em serviço em Louisville, Kentucky, tendo sido reconstruída e renomeada como Belle of Louisville. O primeiro trem chegou a Pocahontas em 1896, e as ferrovias gradualmente substituíram o tráfego fluvial. No final da década de 1920, entretanto, os barcos a vapor e os barcos snag (usados ​​para limpar os destroços do rio) ainda estavam em operação.

Antigamente, o Rio Negro tinha uma grande população de mexilhões de rio. Em 1897, o Dr. J. H. Myers encontrou uma grande pérola esférica três quilômetros ao norte de Black Rock. Isso levou a uma “corrida das pérolas” e acampamentos de tendas surgiram ao longo do rio. As conchas forneceram madrepérola, e Myers, com outras pessoas, estabeleceu uma fábrica de botões em Black Rock três anos depois. Segundo Myers, esta foi a primeira fábrica de botões do sul. Os museus locais, como o Randolph County Heritage Museum, têm ferramentas para fazer botões e conchas das quais os botões foram cortados. A fabricação de botões de pérola atingiu seu pico em meados da década de 1940. A colheita excessiva e o sedimento do rio causados ​​pela agricultura e dragagem reduziram drasticamente a população de mexilhões. Isso, junto com a diminuição da demanda por madrepérola devido à invenção dos botões de plástico e do zíper, praticamente encerrou as indústrias de pérolas e botões em meados do século XX. No entanto, um pequeno número de “descascadores” ainda colhe mexilhões. Eles cortam as cascas em pequenos grânulos de madrepérola para exportação para a Ásia, para serem usados ​​na indústria de pérolas cultivadas.

O rio sempre foi sujeito a inundações, e cruzá-lo foi um desafio nos últimos anos. Por muitos anos, as pessoas que viajavam para os termos do tribunal de primavera entre Corning e Piggott, as duas sedes do condado de Clay County, foram forçadas a pegar um trem para Poplar Bluff, Missouri, e depois pegar o trem da manhã seguinte para o outro tribunal. As enchentes foram citadas como uma das causas do desaparecimento de Davidsonville e foram parcialmente responsáveis ​​por uma pequena participação eleitoral na área quando a proposta de Constituição do Arkansas de 1918 foi derrotada nas urnas. As inundações continuaram até hoje, com graves inundações ocorrendo em 2008 e 2011.

Nos primeiros anos, o estado de Arkansas não tinha dinheiro para construir infraestrutura, então os condados concederam licenças a operadores de balsas e construtores de pontes, que financiaram as melhorias de forma privada e cobraram um pedágio. A primeira ponte em Powhatan, uma ponte oscilante frágil, foi operada dessa forma. Em 1938, o governador Carl Bailey, dedicado a remover todas as pontes com pedágio em Arkansas, comprou os direitos de um local de balsa existente rio acima. O estado então usou sinais de rodovia para desviar o tráfego da ponte. Como a receita do pedágio caiu, o proprietário processou, vencendo no nível de teste. Enquanto o caso estava em apelação, as partes entraram em acordo e o estado pagou ao proprietário US $ 68.000 pela ponte, que mais tarde foi substituída por uma estrutura segura. Hoje, cinco pontes rodoviárias e quatro ferrovias cruzam o rio. A Ponte do Rio Negro em Pocahontas, construída em 1934, está listada no Registro Nacional de Locais Históricos. Em maio de 2015, uma nova ponte sobre o rio Black foi inaugurada em Black Rock, substituindo a estrutura de 1949, que havia sido declarada deficiente pelos funcionários da rodovia em 2010.

Muitos artefatos, fotografias e registros históricos que mostram a indústria e a vida no rio estão em exibição no Davidsonville Historic State Park, no Powhatan Courthouse, no Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, no Randolph County Heritage Museum e no Eddie Mae Herron Center.

Para obter informações adicionais:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (verão de 1980): 136–158.

Condado de Lawrence, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (julho de 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


Rio Preto

O Black River desempenhou um papel significativo, mas mutante, na vida dos residentes do nordeste do Arkansas. Para os primeiros nativos americanos que viviam na área, era uma fonte essencial de alimento e transporte. Isso permaneceu verdadeiro para os colonos europeus na época anterior às estradas e ferrovias. O rio também era uma “rodovia” essencial para os barcos chatos e barcos a vapor que transportavam pessoas e mercadorias de e para a área. O rio apoiou o desenvolvimento da indústria local como meio de transporte de madeira das florestas para locais como Sallee Brothers Handle Mill em Pocahontas (Condado de Randolph), enquanto a pesca do mexilhão fornecia pérolas e madrepérolas para a indústria local de botões para muitos anos. Embora o rio não funcione mais como meio de transporte, ele continua a ser um importante local de recreação para caça, pesca, caminhadas, observação de pássaros, passeios de barco e muito mais. O advogado e escritor de Batesville (Condado de Independence) “Fent” Noland declarou em 1839: “O país que fica acima de White River e do Black está destinado a ser o melhor de Arkansas. A natureza fez tudo o que podia - o homem fará o resto. ”

A nascente do Rio Negro está no sudeste do Missouri. É formado por três rios, flui para o sul e cruza a fronteira do Arkansas no Condado de Clay a nordeste de Corning. De lá, flui geralmente para o sudoeste e passa pela Área de Manejo da Vida Selvagem de Dave Donaldson Black River (WMA), pelo Condado de Randolph até Pocahontas e desce até o Parque Estadual Histórico de Davidsonville. Ele atravessa o condado de Lawrence logo acima da cidade de Black Rock e continua a sudoeste até a comunidade de Powhatan (condado de Lawrence). De lá, ele flui para o sul através do WMA Shirey Bay – Rainey Brake, cruza a fronteira sul do condado de Lawrence e forma a fronteira leste-oeste entre os condados de Independence e Jackson. Finalmente vira para sudeste e entra no White River em Jacksonport (Jackson County), ao norte de Newport (Jackson County). Seus afluentes do Arkansas são os rios Little Black, Spring e Strawberry e, com sua conexão com o rio White, faz parte da bacia hidrográfica do rio Mississippi. O Black tem várias curvas acentuadas, muitas com nomes coloridos, como Deadman e Hole in the Wall na área do Parque Estadual Histórico de Davidsonville, junto com as curvas Box Factory, Battle Axe e Dead Mule no curso inferior do rio.

O rio e os WMAs através dos quais ele flui fornecem oportunidades abundantes para caçadores, pescadores, caminhantes e observadores da vida selvagem. As principais espécies de peixes dentro dela são largemouth bass, tipo de peixe e bagre. A caça de patos, esquilos, veados, coelhos e perus são populares ao longo de seu curso, e os WMAs de Donaldson e Shirey Bay oferecem um excelente habitat para reservatórios de árvores verdes (lago com patos na floresta). Há também uma população de peles, como castores, ratos almiscarados, visons e guaxinins. Numerosas águias carecas e douradas passam o inverno ao redor do Lago Ashbaugh na Donaldson WMA e podem ser avistadas no lago ou ao redor dele de novembro a fevereiro.

O Black e seus arredores têm uma história fascinante, sendo habitados primeiro por construtores de montículos pré-colombianos, depois pelos Osage e Cherokee. Os primeiros colonizadores europeus foram franceses. Antes da penetração das ferrovias na área, os barcos chatos e os barcos a vapor eram essenciais para transportar pessoas e mercadorias, oferecendo o único transporte “da fazenda ao mercado”. O primeiro barco a vapor a subir o Rio Negro até Pocahontas foi o Louro em 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas e Jacksonport eram portos importantes para barcos a vapor e, na virada do século, cerca de 43 barcos a vapor viajavam pelo rio. Um era o Idlewild, que ainda está em serviço em Louisville, Kentucky, tendo sido reconstruída e renomeada como Belle of Louisville. O primeiro trem chegou a Pocahontas em 1896, e as ferrovias gradualmente substituíram o tráfego fluvial. No final da década de 1920, entretanto, os barcos a vapor e os barcos snag (usados ​​para limpar os destroços do rio) ainda estavam em operação.

Antigamente, o Rio Negro tinha uma grande população de mexilhões de rio. Em 1897, o Dr. J. H. Myers encontrou uma grande pérola esférica três quilômetros ao norte de Black Rock. Isso levou a uma “corrida das pérolas” e acampamentos de tendas surgiram ao longo do rio. As conchas forneceram madrepérola, e Myers, com outros, estabeleceu uma fábrica de botões em Black Rock três anos depois. Segundo Myers, esta foi a primeira fábrica de botões do sul. Os museus locais, como o Randolph County Heritage Museum, têm ferramentas para fazer botões e conchas das quais os botões foram cortados. A fabricação de botões de pérola atingiu seu pico em meados da década de 1940. A colheita excessiva e o sedimento do rio causados ​​pela agricultura e dragagem reduziram drasticamente a população de mexilhões. Isso, junto com a diminuição da demanda por madrepérola devido à invenção dos botões de plástico e do zíper, praticamente encerrou as indústrias de pérolas e botões em meados do século XX. No entanto, um pequeno número de “descascadores” ainda colhe mexilhões. Eles cortam as cascas em pequenos grânulos de madrepérola para exportação para a Ásia, para serem usados ​​na indústria de pérolas cultivadas.

O rio sempre foi sujeito a inundações, e cruzá-lo foi um desafio nos últimos anos. Por muitos anos, as pessoas que viajavam para os termos do tribunal de primavera entre Corning e Piggott, as duas sedes do condado de Clay County, foram forçadas a pegar um trem para Poplar Bluff, Missouri, e depois pegar o trem da manhã seguinte para o outro tribunal. As enchentes foram citadas como uma das causas do desaparecimento de Davidsonville e foram parcialmente responsáveis ​​por uma pequena participação eleitoral na área quando a proposta de Constituição do Arkansas de 1918 foi derrotada nas urnas. As inundações continuaram até hoje, com graves inundações ocorrendo em 2008 e 2011.

Nos primeiros anos, o estado de Arkansas não tinha dinheiro para construir infraestrutura, então os condados concederam licenças a operadores de balsas e construtores de pontes, que financiaram as melhorias de forma privada e cobraram um pedágio. A primeira ponte em Powhatan, uma ponte oscilante frágil, foi operada dessa forma. Em 1938, o governador Carl Bailey, dedicado a remover todas as pontes com pedágio em Arkansas, comprou os direitos de um local de balsa existente rio acima. O estado então usou sinais de rodovia para desviar o tráfego da ponte. Como a receita do pedágio caiu, o proprietário processou, vencendo no nível de teste. Enquanto o caso estava em apelação, as partes entraram em acordo e o estado pagou ao proprietário US $ 68.000 pela ponte, que mais tarde foi substituída por uma estrutura segura. Hoje, cinco pontes rodoviárias e quatro ferrovias cruzam o rio. A Ponte do Rio Negro em Pocahontas, construída em 1934, está listada no Registro Nacional de Locais Históricos. Em maio de 2015, uma nova ponte sobre o rio Black foi inaugurada em Black Rock, substituindo a estrutura de 1949, que havia sido declarada deficiente pelos funcionários da rodovia em 2010.

Muitos artefatos, fotografias e registros históricos que mostram a indústria e a vida no rio estão em exibição no Davidsonville Historic State Park, no Powhatan Courthouse, no Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, no Randolph County Heritage Museum e no Eddie Mae Herron Center.

Para obter informações adicionais:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (verão de 1980): 136–158.

Condado de Lawrence, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (julho de 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


Rio Preto

O Black River desempenhou um papel significativo, mas inconstante, na vida dos residentes do nordeste do Arkansas. Para os primeiros nativos americanos que viviam na área, era uma fonte essencial de alimento e transporte. Isso permaneceu verdadeiro para os colonos europeus na época anterior às estradas e ferrovias. O rio também era uma “rodovia” essencial para os barcos chatos e barcos a vapor que transportavam pessoas e mercadorias de e para a área. O rio apoiou o desenvolvimento da indústria local como meio de transporte de madeira das florestas para locais como Sallee Brothers Handle Mill em Pocahontas (Condado de Randolph), enquanto a pesca do mexilhão fornecia pérolas e madrepérolas para a indústria local de botões para muitos anos. Embora o rio não funcione mais como meio de transporte, ele continua a ser um importante local de recreação para caça, pesca, caminhadas, observação de pássaros, passeios de barco e muito mais. O advogado e escritor de Batesville (Condado de Independence) “Fent” Noland declarou em 1839: “O país que fica acima de White River e do Black está destinado a ser o melhor de Arkansas. A natureza fez tudo o que podia - o homem fará o resto. ”

A nascente do Rio Negro está no sudeste do Missouri. É formado por três rios, flui para o sul e cruza a fronteira do Arkansas no Condado de Clay a nordeste de Corning. De lá, flui geralmente para o sudoeste e passa pela Área de Manejo da Vida Selvagem de Dave Donaldson Black River (WMA), pelo Condado de Randolph até Pocahontas e desce até o Parque Estadual Histórico de Davidsonville. Ele atravessa o condado de Lawrence logo acima da cidade de Black Rock e continua a sudoeste até a comunidade de Powhatan (condado de Lawrence). De lá, ele flui para o sul através do WMA Shirey Bay – Rainey Brake, cruza a fronteira sul do condado de Lawrence e forma a fronteira leste-oeste entre os condados de Independence e Jackson. Finalmente vira para sudeste e entra no White River em Jacksonport (Jackson County), ao norte de Newport (Jackson County). Seus afluentes do Arkansas são os rios Little Black, Spring e Strawberry e, com sua conexão com o rio White, faz parte da bacia hidrográfica do rio Mississippi. O Black tem várias curvas acentuadas, muitas com nomes coloridos, como Deadman e Hole in the Wall na área do Parque Estadual Histórico de Davidsonville, junto com as curvas Box Factory, Battle Axe e Dead Mule no curso inferior do rio.

O rio e os WMAs através dos quais ele flui fornecem oportunidades abundantes para caçadores, pescadores, caminhantes e observadores da vida selvagem. As principais espécies de peixes dentro dela são largemouth bass, tipo de peixe e bagre. A caça de patos, esquilos, veados, coelhos e perus são populares ao longo de seu curso, e os WMAs de Donaldson e Shirey Bay oferecem um excelente habitat para reservatórios de árvores verdes (lago com patos na floresta). Também há uma população de peles, como castores, ratos-almiscarados, visons e guaxinins. Numerosas águias carecas e douradas passam o inverno ao redor do Lago Ashbaugh na Donaldson WMA e podem ser avistadas no lago ou ao redor dele de novembro a fevereiro.

O Black e seus arredores têm uma história fascinante, sendo habitados primeiro por construtores de montículos pré-colombianos, depois pelos Osage e Cherokee. Os primeiros colonizadores europeus foram franceses. Antes da penetração das ferrovias na área, os barcos chatos e os barcos a vapor eram essenciais para transportar pessoas e mercadorias, oferecendo o único transporte “da fazenda ao mercado”. O primeiro barco a vapor a subir o Rio Negro até Pocahontas foi o Louro em 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas e Jacksonport eram portos importantes para barcos a vapor e, na virada do século, cerca de 43 barcos a vapor viajavam pelo rio. Um era o Idlewild, que ainda está em serviço em Louisville, Kentucky, tendo sido reconstruída e renomeada como Belle of Louisville. O primeiro trem chegou a Pocahontas em 1896, e as ferrovias gradualmente substituíram o tráfego fluvial. No final da década de 1920, entretanto, os barcos a vapor e os barcos snag (usados ​​para limpar os destroços do rio) ainda estavam em operação.

Antigamente, o Rio Negro tinha uma grande população de mexilhões de rio. Em 1897, o Dr. J. H. Myers encontrou uma grande pérola esférica três quilômetros ao norte de Black Rock. Isso levou a uma “corrida das pérolas” e acampamentos de tendas surgiram ao longo do rio. As conchas forneceram madrepérola, e Myers, com outras pessoas, estabeleceu uma fábrica de botões em Black Rock três anos depois. Segundo Myers, esta foi a primeira fábrica de botões do sul. Os museus locais, como o Randolph County Heritage Museum, têm ferramentas para fazer botões e conchas das quais os botões foram cortados. A fabricação de botões de pérola atingiu seu pico em meados da década de 1940. A colheita excessiva e o sedimento do rio causados ​​pela agricultura e dragagem reduziram drasticamente a população de mexilhões. Isso, junto com a diminuição da demanda por madrepérola devido à invenção dos botões de plástico e do zíper, praticamente encerrou as indústrias de pérolas e botões em meados do século XX. No entanto, um pequeno número de “descascadores” ainda colhe mexilhões. Eles cortam as cascas em pequenos grânulos de madrepérola para exportação para a Ásia, para serem usados ​​na indústria de pérolas cultivadas.

O rio sempre foi sujeito a inundações, e cruzá-lo foi um desafio nos últimos anos. Por muitos anos, as pessoas que viajavam para os termos do tribunal de primavera entre Corning e Piggott, as duas sedes do condado de Clay County, foram forçadas a pegar um trem para Poplar Bluff, Missouri, e depois pegar o trem da manhã seguinte para o outro tribunal. As enchentes foram citadas como uma das causas do desaparecimento de Davidsonville e foram parcialmente responsáveis ​​por uma pequena participação eleitoral na área quando a proposta de Constituição do Arkansas de 1918 foi derrotada nas urnas. As inundações continuaram até hoje, com graves inundações ocorrendo em 2008 e 2011.

Nos primeiros anos, o estado de Arkansas não tinha dinheiro para construir infraestrutura, então os condados concederam licenças a operadores de balsas e construtores de pontes, que financiaram as melhorias de forma privada e cobraram um pedágio. A primeira ponte em Powhatan, uma ponte oscilante frágil, foi operada dessa forma. Em 1938, o governador Carl Bailey, dedicado a remover todas as pontes com pedágio em Arkansas, comprou os direitos de um local de balsa existente rio acima. O estado então usou sinais de rodovia para desviar o tráfego da ponte. Como a receita do pedágio caiu, o proprietário processou, vencendo no nível de teste. Enquanto o caso estava em apelação, as partes entraram em acordo e o estado pagou ao proprietário US $ 68.000 pela ponte, que mais tarde foi substituída por uma estrutura segura. Hoje, cinco pontes rodoviárias e quatro ferrovias cruzam o rio. A Ponte do Rio Negro em Pocahontas, construída em 1934, está listada no Registro Nacional de Locais Históricos. Em maio de 2015, uma nova ponte sobre o rio Black foi inaugurada em Black Rock, substituindo a estrutura de 1949, que havia sido declarada deficiente pelos funcionários da rodovia em 2010.

Muitos artefatos, fotografias e registros históricos que mostram a indústria e a vida no rio estão em exibição no Davidsonville Historic State Park, no Powhatan Courthouse, no Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, no Randolph County Heritage Museum e no Eddie Mae Herron Center.

Para obter informações adicionais:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (verão de 1980): 136–158.

Condado de Lawrence, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (julho de 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


Rio Preto

O Black River desempenhou um papel significativo, mas inconstante, na vida dos residentes do nordeste do Arkansas. Para os primeiros nativos americanos que viviam na área, era uma fonte essencial de alimento e transporte. Isso permaneceu verdadeiro para os colonos europeus na época anterior às estradas e ferrovias. O rio também era uma “rodovia” essencial para os barcos chatos e barcos a vapor que transportavam pessoas e mercadorias de e para a área. O rio apoiou o desenvolvimento da indústria local como meio de transporte de madeira das florestas para locais como Sallee Brothers Handle Mill em Pocahontas (Condado de Randolph), enquanto a pesca do mexilhão fornecia pérolas e madrepérolas para a indústria local de botões para muitos anos. Embora o rio não funcione mais como meio de transporte, ele continua a ser um importante local de recreação para caça, pesca, caminhadas, observação de pássaros, passeios de barco e muito mais. O advogado e escritor de Batesville (Condado de Independence) “Fent” Noland declarou em 1839: “O país que fica acima de White River e do Black está destinado a ser o melhor de Arkansas. A natureza fez tudo o que podia - o homem fará o resto. ”

A nascente do Rio Negro está no sudeste do Missouri. É formado por três rios, flui para o sul e atravessa a fronteira do Arkansas no Condado de Clay a nordeste de Corning. De lá, flui geralmente para o sudoeste e passa pela Área de Manejo da Vida Selvagem de Dave Donaldson Black River (WMA), pelo Condado de Randolph até Pocahontas e desce até o Parque Estadual Histórico de Davidsonville. Ele atravessa o condado de Lawrence logo acima da cidade de Black Rock e continua a sudoeste até a comunidade de Powhatan (condado de Lawrence). De lá, ele flui para o sul através do WMA Shirey Bay – Rainey Brake, cruza a fronteira sul do condado de Lawrence e forma a fronteira leste-oeste entre os condados de Independence e Jackson. Finalmente vira para sudeste e entra no White River em Jacksonport (Jackson County), ao norte de Newport (Jackson County). Seus afluentes do Arkansas são os rios Little Black, Spring e Strawberry e, com sua conexão com o rio White, faz parte da bacia hidrográfica do rio Mississippi. O Black tem várias curvas acentuadas, muitas com nomes coloridos, como Deadman e Hole in the Wall na área do Parque Estadual Histórico de Davidsonville, junto com as curvas Box Factory, Battle Axe e Dead Mule no curso inferior do rio.

O rio e os WMAs através dos quais ele flui fornecem oportunidades abundantes para caçadores, pescadores, caminhantes e observadores da vida selvagem. As principais espécies de peixes dentro dela são largemouth bass, tipo de peixe e bagre. A caça de patos, esquilos, veados, coelhos e perus são populares ao longo de seu curso, e os WMAs de Donaldson e Shirey Bay oferecem um excelente habitat para reservatórios de árvores verdes (lago com patos na floresta). Há também uma população de peles, como castores, ratos almiscarados, visons e guaxinins. Numerosas águias carecas e douradas passam o inverno ao redor do Lago Ashbaugh em Donaldson WMA e podem ser avistadas no lago ou ao redor dele de novembro a fevereiro.

O Black e seus arredores têm uma história fascinante, sendo habitados primeiro por construtores de montículos pré-colombianos, depois pelos Osage e Cherokee. Os primeiros colonizadores europeus foram franceses. Nos dias anteriores à penetração das ferrovias na área, as chatas e os barcos a vapor eram essenciais para transportar pessoas e mercadorias, oferecendo o único transporte “da fazenda ao mercado”. O primeiro barco a vapor a subir o Rio Negro até Pocahontas foi o Louro em 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas e Jacksonport eram portos importantes para barcos a vapor e, na virada do século, cerca de 43 barcos a vapor viajavam pelo rio. Um era o Idlewild, que ainda está em serviço em Louisville, Kentucky, tendo sido reconstruído e renomeado como Belle of Louisville. O primeiro trem chegou a Pocahontas em 1896, e as ferrovias gradualmente substituíram o tráfego fluvial. No final da década de 1920, entretanto, os barcos a vapor e os barcos snag (usados ​​para limpar os destroços do rio) ainda estavam em operação.

Antigamente, o Rio Negro tinha uma grande população de mexilhões de rio. Em 1897, o Dr. J. H. Myers encontrou uma grande pérola esférica três quilômetros ao norte de Black Rock. Isso levou a uma “corrida das pérolas” e acampamentos de tendas surgiram ao longo do rio. As conchas forneceram madrepérola, e Myers, com outras pessoas, estabeleceu uma fábrica de botões em Black Rock três anos depois. Segundo Myers, esta foi a primeira fábrica de botões do sul. Os museus locais, como o Randolph County Heritage Museum, têm ferramentas para fazer botões e conchas das quais os botões foram cortados. A fabricação de botões de pérola atingiu seu pico em meados da década de 1940. A colheita excessiva e o sedimento do rio causados ​​pela agricultura e dragagem reduziram drasticamente a população de mexilhões. Isso, junto com a diminuição da demanda por madrepérola devido à invenção dos botões de plástico e do zíper, praticamente encerrou as indústrias de pérolas e botões em meados do século XX. No entanto, um pequeno número de “descascadores” ainda colhe mexilhões. Eles cortam as cascas em pequenos grânulos de madrepérola para exportação para a Ásia, para serem usados ​​na indústria de pérolas cultivadas.

O rio sempre foi sujeito a inundações, e cruzá-lo foi um desafio nos últimos anos. Por muitos anos, as pessoas que viajavam para os termos do tribunal de primavera entre Corning e Piggott, as duas sedes do condado de Clay County, foram forçadas a pegar um trem para Poplar Bluff, Missouri, e depois pegar o trem da manhã seguinte para o outro tribunal. As enchentes foram citadas como uma das causas do desaparecimento de Davidsonville e foram parcialmente responsáveis ​​por uma pequena participação eleitoral na área quando a proposta de Constituição do Arkansas de 1918 foi derrotada nas urnas. As inundações continuaram até hoje, com graves inundações ocorrendo em 2008 e 2011.

Nos primeiros anos, o estado de Arkansas não tinha dinheiro para construir infraestrutura, então os condados concederam licenças a operadores de balsas e construtores de pontes, que financiaram as melhorias de forma privada e cobraram um pedágio. A primeira ponte em Powhatan, uma ponte oscilante frágil, foi operada dessa forma. Em 1938, o governador Carl Bailey, dedicado a remover todas as pontes com pedágio em Arkansas, comprou os direitos de um local de balsa existente rio acima. O estado então usou sinais de rodovia para desviar o tráfego da ponte. Como a receita do pedágio caiu, o proprietário processou, vencendo no nível de teste. Enquanto o caso estava em apelação, as partes entraram em acordo e o estado pagou ao proprietário US $ 68.000 pela ponte, que mais tarde foi substituída por uma estrutura segura. Hoje, cinco pontes rodoviárias e quatro ferrovias cruzam o rio. A Ponte do Rio Negro em Pocahontas, construída em 1934, está listada no Registro Nacional de Locais Históricos. Em maio de 2015, uma nova ponte sobre o rio Black foi inaugurada em Black Rock, substituindo a estrutura de 1949, que havia sido declarada deficiente pelos funcionários da rodovia em 2010.

Muitos artefatos, fotografias e registros históricos que mostram a indústria e a vida no rio estão em exibição no Davidsonville Historic State Park, no Powhatan Courthouse, no Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, no Randolph County Heritage Museum e no Eddie Mae Herron Center.

Para obter informações adicionais:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (verão de 1980): 136–158.

Condado de Lawrence, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (julho de 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


Rio Preto

O Black River desempenhou um papel significativo, mas inconstante, na vida dos residentes do nordeste do Arkansas. Para os primeiros nativos americanos que viviam na área, era uma fonte essencial de alimento e transporte. Isso permaneceu verdadeiro para os colonos europeus na época anterior às estradas e ferrovias. The river was also an essential “highway” for the flatboats and river steamers that transported people and goods to and from the area. The river supported the development of local industry as the means for moving timber from the forests to places such as the Sallee Brothers Handle Mill in Pocahontas (Randolph County), while mussel fishing supplied pearls and mother of pearl for the local button-making industry for many years. While the river no longer functions as a means of transportation, it continues to be an important recreational site for hunting, fishing, hiking, bird watching, boating, and more. Batesville (Independence County) lawyer and writer “Fent” Noland stated in 1839, “The country up White River and the Black is destined to be the finest in Arkansas. Nature has done all she could—man will do the rest.”

The Black River’s source is in southeast Missouri. It is formed from three rivers, flows south, and crosses the Arkansas border in Clay County northeast of Corning. From there, it flows generally southwest and passes through the Dave Donaldson Black River Wildlife Management Area (WMA), through Randolph County to Pocahontas, and down to Davidsonville Historic State Park. It crosses into Lawrence County just above the town of Black Rock and continues southwest to the community of Powhatan (Lawrence County). From there, it flows south through the Shirey Bay–Rainey Brake WMA, crosses the southern border of Lawrence County, and forms the east-west border between Independence and Jackson counties. It finally turns southeast and enters the White River at Jacksonport (Jackson County), just north of Newport (Jackson County). Its Arkansas tributaries are the Little Black, Spring, and Strawberry rivers, and with its connection to the White River, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed. The Black has numerous sharp bends, many with colorful names, such as Deadman and Hole in the Wall in the Davidsonville Historic State Park area, along with the Box Factory, Battle Axe, and Dead Mule bends in the lower course of the river.

The river and the WMAs through which it flows provide abundant opportunities for hunters, fishermen, hikers, and wildlife watchers. The main species of fish within it are largemouth bass, crappie, and catfish. Duck, squirrel, deer, rabbit, and turkey hunting are popular along its course, and both the Donaldson and Shirey Bay WMAs offer fine green tree reservoir (woodland duck pond) habitat. There is also a population of furbearers such as beaver, muskrat, mink, and raccoon. Numerous bald and golden eagles winter around Lake Ashbaugh in the Donaldson WMA and can be sighted on or around the lake from November through February.

The Black and its surrounding area have a fascinating history, being first inhabited by pre-Columbian mound builders, then by the Osage and Cherokee. The first European settlers were French. In the days before railroads penetrated the area, flatboats and steamboats were essential to moving people and goods, offering the only “farm to market” transportation. The first steamboat to go up the Black River to Pocahontas was the Louro in 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas, and Jacksonport were important steamboat ports, and by the turn of the century, some forty-three steamboats traveled the river. One was the Idlewild, which is still in service at Louisville, Kentucky, having been rebuilt and renamed the Belle of Louisville. The first train arrived in Pocahontas in 1896, and the railroads gradually replaced river traffic. As late as the 1920s, however, steamboats and snag boats (used to clear river debris) were still in operation.

In earlier days, the Black River had a large population of river mussels. In 1897, Dr. J. H. Myers found a large ball pearl two miles north of Black Rock. This led to a “pearl rush,” and tent camps sprouted along the river. The shells provided mother of pearl, and Myers, with others, established a button factory at Black Rock three years later. According to Myers, this was the first button factory in the South. Area museums, such as the Randolph County Heritage Museum, have button-making tools and shells from which the buttons were cut. Pearl button manufacturing reached its peak in the mid-1940s. Overharvesting and silt in the river caused by farming and dredging have drastically reduced the mussel population. This, along with a decreased demand for mother of pearl due to the invention of plastic buttons and the zipper, virtually ended the pearling and button industries in the mid-twentieth century. However, a small number of “shellers” still gather mussels. They cut the shells into small pellets of mother of pearl for export to Asia, to be used in the cultured pearl industry.

The river has always been prone to flooding, and crossing it proved a challenge in years past. For many years, people traveling for spring terms of court between Corning and Piggott, the two county seats in Clay County, were forced to ride a train to Poplar Bluff, Missouri, and then catch the next morning’s train to the other courthouse. Flooding has been cited as one cause of the demise of Davidsonville and was partly responsible for a light voter turnout in the area when the proposed Arkansas Constitution of 1918 was defeated at the polls. Flooding has continued to this day, with severe flooding occurring in 2008 and 2011.

In early years, the State of Arkansas had no money to build infrastructure, so counties granted licenses to ferry operators and bridge builders, who privately financed the improvements and charged a toll. The first bridge at Powhatan, a flimsy swing bridge, was so operated. In 1938, Governor Carl Bailey, dedicated to removing all toll bridges in Arkansas, purchased rights to an existing ferry site just up the river. The state then used highway signs to divert traffic from the bridge. Because toll revenue dropped, the owner sued, winning at the trial level. While the case was on appeal, the parties settled, and the state paid the owner $68,000 for the bridge, which was later replaced by a safe structure. Today, five highway and four railroad bridges cross the river. The Black River Bridge at Pocahontas, built in 1934, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In May 2015, a new bridge spanning the Black River was opened at Black Rock, replacing the 1949 structure, which had been declared deficient by highway officials in 2010.

Many artifacts, photographs, and historical records showing industry and life on the river are on display at Davidsonville Historic State Park, the Powhatan Courthouse, the Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, the Randolph County Heritage Museum, and the Eddie Mae Herron Center.

For additional information:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (Summer 1980): 136–158.

Lawrence County, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (July 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


Rio Preto

The Black River has played a significant, but shifting, role in the lives of residents of northeast Arkansas. For the early Native Americans who lived in the area, it was an essential food and transportation source. This remained true for European settlers in the days before roads and railroads. The river was also an essential “highway” for the flatboats and river steamers that transported people and goods to and from the area. The river supported the development of local industry as the means for moving timber from the forests to places such as the Sallee Brothers Handle Mill in Pocahontas (Randolph County), while mussel fishing supplied pearls and mother of pearl for the local button-making industry for many years. While the river no longer functions as a means of transportation, it continues to be an important recreational site for hunting, fishing, hiking, bird watching, boating, and more. Batesville (Independence County) lawyer and writer “Fent” Noland stated in 1839, “The country up White River and the Black is destined to be the finest in Arkansas. Nature has done all she could—man will do the rest.”

The Black River’s source is in southeast Missouri. It is formed from three rivers, flows south, and crosses the Arkansas border in Clay County northeast of Corning. From there, it flows generally southwest and passes through the Dave Donaldson Black River Wildlife Management Area (WMA), through Randolph County to Pocahontas, and down to Davidsonville Historic State Park. It crosses into Lawrence County just above the town of Black Rock and continues southwest to the community of Powhatan (Lawrence County). From there, it flows south through the Shirey Bay–Rainey Brake WMA, crosses the southern border of Lawrence County, and forms the east-west border between Independence and Jackson counties. It finally turns southeast and enters the White River at Jacksonport (Jackson County), just north of Newport (Jackson County). Its Arkansas tributaries are the Little Black, Spring, and Strawberry rivers, and with its connection to the White River, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed. The Black has numerous sharp bends, many with colorful names, such as Deadman and Hole in the Wall in the Davidsonville Historic State Park area, along with the Box Factory, Battle Axe, and Dead Mule bends in the lower course of the river.

The river and the WMAs through which it flows provide abundant opportunities for hunters, fishermen, hikers, and wildlife watchers. The main species of fish within it are largemouth bass, crappie, and catfish. Duck, squirrel, deer, rabbit, and turkey hunting are popular along its course, and both the Donaldson and Shirey Bay WMAs offer fine green tree reservoir (woodland duck pond) habitat. There is also a population of furbearers such as beaver, muskrat, mink, and raccoon. Numerous bald and golden eagles winter around Lake Ashbaugh in the Donaldson WMA and can be sighted on or around the lake from November through February.

The Black and its surrounding area have a fascinating history, being first inhabited by pre-Columbian mound builders, then by the Osage and Cherokee. The first European settlers were French. In the days before railroads penetrated the area, flatboats and steamboats were essential to moving people and goods, offering the only “farm to market” transportation. The first steamboat to go up the Black River to Pocahontas was the Louro in 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas, and Jacksonport were important steamboat ports, and by the turn of the century, some forty-three steamboats traveled the river. One was the Idlewild, which is still in service at Louisville, Kentucky, having been rebuilt and renamed the Belle of Louisville. The first train arrived in Pocahontas in 1896, and the railroads gradually replaced river traffic. As late as the 1920s, however, steamboats and snag boats (used to clear river debris) were still in operation.

In earlier days, the Black River had a large population of river mussels. In 1897, Dr. J. H. Myers found a large ball pearl two miles north of Black Rock. This led to a “pearl rush,” and tent camps sprouted along the river. The shells provided mother of pearl, and Myers, with others, established a button factory at Black Rock three years later. According to Myers, this was the first button factory in the South. Area museums, such as the Randolph County Heritage Museum, have button-making tools and shells from which the buttons were cut. Pearl button manufacturing reached its peak in the mid-1940s. Overharvesting and silt in the river caused by farming and dredging have drastically reduced the mussel population. This, along with a decreased demand for mother of pearl due to the invention of plastic buttons and the zipper, virtually ended the pearling and button industries in the mid-twentieth century. However, a small number of “shellers” still gather mussels. They cut the shells into small pellets of mother of pearl for export to Asia, to be used in the cultured pearl industry.

The river has always been prone to flooding, and crossing it proved a challenge in years past. For many years, people traveling for spring terms of court between Corning and Piggott, the two county seats in Clay County, were forced to ride a train to Poplar Bluff, Missouri, and then catch the next morning’s train to the other courthouse. Flooding has been cited as one cause of the demise of Davidsonville and was partly responsible for a light voter turnout in the area when the proposed Arkansas Constitution of 1918 was defeated at the polls. Flooding has continued to this day, with severe flooding occurring in 2008 and 2011.

In early years, the State of Arkansas had no money to build infrastructure, so counties granted licenses to ferry operators and bridge builders, who privately financed the improvements and charged a toll. The first bridge at Powhatan, a flimsy swing bridge, was so operated. In 1938, Governor Carl Bailey, dedicated to removing all toll bridges in Arkansas, purchased rights to an existing ferry site just up the river. The state then used highway signs to divert traffic from the bridge. Because toll revenue dropped, the owner sued, winning at the trial level. While the case was on appeal, the parties settled, and the state paid the owner $68,000 for the bridge, which was later replaced by a safe structure. Today, five highway and four railroad bridges cross the river. The Black River Bridge at Pocahontas, built in 1934, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In May 2015, a new bridge spanning the Black River was opened at Black Rock, replacing the 1949 structure, which had been declared deficient by highway officials in 2010.

Many artifacts, photographs, and historical records showing industry and life on the river are on display at Davidsonville Historic State Park, the Powhatan Courthouse, the Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, the Randolph County Heritage Museum, and the Eddie Mae Herron Center.

For additional information:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (Summer 1980): 136–158.

Lawrence County, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (July 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


Rio Preto

The Black River has played a significant, but shifting, role in the lives of residents of northeast Arkansas. For the early Native Americans who lived in the area, it was an essential food and transportation source. This remained true for European settlers in the days before roads and railroads. The river was also an essential “highway” for the flatboats and river steamers that transported people and goods to and from the area. The river supported the development of local industry as the means for moving timber from the forests to places such as the Sallee Brothers Handle Mill in Pocahontas (Randolph County), while mussel fishing supplied pearls and mother of pearl for the local button-making industry for many years. While the river no longer functions as a means of transportation, it continues to be an important recreational site for hunting, fishing, hiking, bird watching, boating, and more. Batesville (Independence County) lawyer and writer “Fent” Noland stated in 1839, “The country up White River and the Black is destined to be the finest in Arkansas. Nature has done all she could—man will do the rest.”

The Black River’s source is in southeast Missouri. It is formed from three rivers, flows south, and crosses the Arkansas border in Clay County northeast of Corning. From there, it flows generally southwest and passes through the Dave Donaldson Black River Wildlife Management Area (WMA), through Randolph County to Pocahontas, and down to Davidsonville Historic State Park. It crosses into Lawrence County just above the town of Black Rock and continues southwest to the community of Powhatan (Lawrence County). From there, it flows south through the Shirey Bay–Rainey Brake WMA, crosses the southern border of Lawrence County, and forms the east-west border between Independence and Jackson counties. It finally turns southeast and enters the White River at Jacksonport (Jackson County), just north of Newport (Jackson County). Its Arkansas tributaries are the Little Black, Spring, and Strawberry rivers, and with its connection to the White River, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed. The Black has numerous sharp bends, many with colorful names, such as Deadman and Hole in the Wall in the Davidsonville Historic State Park area, along with the Box Factory, Battle Axe, and Dead Mule bends in the lower course of the river.

The river and the WMAs through which it flows provide abundant opportunities for hunters, fishermen, hikers, and wildlife watchers. The main species of fish within it are largemouth bass, crappie, and catfish. Duck, squirrel, deer, rabbit, and turkey hunting are popular along its course, and both the Donaldson and Shirey Bay WMAs offer fine green tree reservoir (woodland duck pond) habitat. There is also a population of furbearers such as beaver, muskrat, mink, and raccoon. Numerous bald and golden eagles winter around Lake Ashbaugh in the Donaldson WMA and can be sighted on or around the lake from November through February.

The Black and its surrounding area have a fascinating history, being first inhabited by pre-Columbian mound builders, then by the Osage and Cherokee. The first European settlers were French. In the days before railroads penetrated the area, flatboats and steamboats were essential to moving people and goods, offering the only “farm to market” transportation. The first steamboat to go up the Black River to Pocahontas was the Louro in 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas, and Jacksonport were important steamboat ports, and by the turn of the century, some forty-three steamboats traveled the river. One was the Idlewild, which is still in service at Louisville, Kentucky, having been rebuilt and renamed the Belle of Louisville. The first train arrived in Pocahontas in 1896, and the railroads gradually replaced river traffic. As late as the 1920s, however, steamboats and snag boats (used to clear river debris) were still in operation.

In earlier days, the Black River had a large population of river mussels. In 1897, Dr. J. H. Myers found a large ball pearl two miles north of Black Rock. This led to a “pearl rush,” and tent camps sprouted along the river. The shells provided mother of pearl, and Myers, with others, established a button factory at Black Rock three years later. According to Myers, this was the first button factory in the South. Area museums, such as the Randolph County Heritage Museum, have button-making tools and shells from which the buttons were cut. Pearl button manufacturing reached its peak in the mid-1940s. Overharvesting and silt in the river caused by farming and dredging have drastically reduced the mussel population. This, along with a decreased demand for mother of pearl due to the invention of plastic buttons and the zipper, virtually ended the pearling and button industries in the mid-twentieth century. However, a small number of “shellers” still gather mussels. They cut the shells into small pellets of mother of pearl for export to Asia, to be used in the cultured pearl industry.

The river has always been prone to flooding, and crossing it proved a challenge in years past. For many years, people traveling for spring terms of court between Corning and Piggott, the two county seats in Clay County, were forced to ride a train to Poplar Bluff, Missouri, and then catch the next morning’s train to the other courthouse. Flooding has been cited as one cause of the demise of Davidsonville and was partly responsible for a light voter turnout in the area when the proposed Arkansas Constitution of 1918 was defeated at the polls. Flooding has continued to this day, with severe flooding occurring in 2008 and 2011.

In early years, the State of Arkansas had no money to build infrastructure, so counties granted licenses to ferry operators and bridge builders, who privately financed the improvements and charged a toll. The first bridge at Powhatan, a flimsy swing bridge, was so operated. In 1938, Governor Carl Bailey, dedicated to removing all toll bridges in Arkansas, purchased rights to an existing ferry site just up the river. The state then used highway signs to divert traffic from the bridge. Because toll revenue dropped, the owner sued, winning at the trial level. While the case was on appeal, the parties settled, and the state paid the owner $68,000 for the bridge, which was later replaced by a safe structure. Today, five highway and four railroad bridges cross the river. The Black River Bridge at Pocahontas, built in 1934, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In May 2015, a new bridge spanning the Black River was opened at Black Rock, replacing the 1949 structure, which had been declared deficient by highway officials in 2010.

Many artifacts, photographs, and historical records showing industry and life on the river are on display at Davidsonville Historic State Park, the Powhatan Courthouse, the Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, the Randolph County Heritage Museum, and the Eddie Mae Herron Center.

For additional information:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (Summer 1980): 136–158.

Lawrence County, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (July 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


Rio Preto

The Black River has played a significant, but shifting, role in the lives of residents of northeast Arkansas. For the early Native Americans who lived in the area, it was an essential food and transportation source. This remained true for European settlers in the days before roads and railroads. The river was also an essential “highway” for the flatboats and river steamers that transported people and goods to and from the area. The river supported the development of local industry as the means for moving timber from the forests to places such as the Sallee Brothers Handle Mill in Pocahontas (Randolph County), while mussel fishing supplied pearls and mother of pearl for the local button-making industry for many years. While the river no longer functions as a means of transportation, it continues to be an important recreational site for hunting, fishing, hiking, bird watching, boating, and more. Batesville (Independence County) lawyer and writer “Fent” Noland stated in 1839, “The country up White River and the Black is destined to be the finest in Arkansas. Nature has done all she could—man will do the rest.”

The Black River’s source is in southeast Missouri. It is formed from three rivers, flows south, and crosses the Arkansas border in Clay County northeast of Corning. From there, it flows generally southwest and passes through the Dave Donaldson Black River Wildlife Management Area (WMA), through Randolph County to Pocahontas, and down to Davidsonville Historic State Park. It crosses into Lawrence County just above the town of Black Rock and continues southwest to the community of Powhatan (Lawrence County). From there, it flows south through the Shirey Bay–Rainey Brake WMA, crosses the southern border of Lawrence County, and forms the east-west border between Independence and Jackson counties. It finally turns southeast and enters the White River at Jacksonport (Jackson County), just north of Newport (Jackson County). Its Arkansas tributaries are the Little Black, Spring, and Strawberry rivers, and with its connection to the White River, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed. The Black has numerous sharp bends, many with colorful names, such as Deadman and Hole in the Wall in the Davidsonville Historic State Park area, along with the Box Factory, Battle Axe, and Dead Mule bends in the lower course of the river.

The river and the WMAs through which it flows provide abundant opportunities for hunters, fishermen, hikers, and wildlife watchers. The main species of fish within it are largemouth bass, crappie, and catfish. Duck, squirrel, deer, rabbit, and turkey hunting are popular along its course, and both the Donaldson and Shirey Bay WMAs offer fine green tree reservoir (woodland duck pond) habitat. There is also a population of furbearers such as beaver, muskrat, mink, and raccoon. Numerous bald and golden eagles winter around Lake Ashbaugh in the Donaldson WMA and can be sighted on or around the lake from November through February.

The Black and its surrounding area have a fascinating history, being first inhabited by pre-Columbian mound builders, then by the Osage and Cherokee. The first European settlers were French. In the days before railroads penetrated the area, flatboats and steamboats were essential to moving people and goods, offering the only “farm to market” transportation. The first steamboat to go up the Black River to Pocahontas was the Louro in 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas, and Jacksonport were important steamboat ports, and by the turn of the century, some forty-three steamboats traveled the river. One was the Idlewild, which is still in service at Louisville, Kentucky, having been rebuilt and renamed the Belle of Louisville. The first train arrived in Pocahontas in 1896, and the railroads gradually replaced river traffic. As late as the 1920s, however, steamboats and snag boats (used to clear river debris) were still in operation.

In earlier days, the Black River had a large population of river mussels. In 1897, Dr. J. H. Myers found a large ball pearl two miles north of Black Rock. This led to a “pearl rush,” and tent camps sprouted along the river. The shells provided mother of pearl, and Myers, with others, established a button factory at Black Rock three years later. According to Myers, this was the first button factory in the South. Area museums, such as the Randolph County Heritage Museum, have button-making tools and shells from which the buttons were cut. Pearl button manufacturing reached its peak in the mid-1940s. Overharvesting and silt in the river caused by farming and dredging have drastically reduced the mussel population. This, along with a decreased demand for mother of pearl due to the invention of plastic buttons and the zipper, virtually ended the pearling and button industries in the mid-twentieth century. However, a small number of “shellers” still gather mussels. They cut the shells into small pellets of mother of pearl for export to Asia, to be used in the cultured pearl industry.

The river has always been prone to flooding, and crossing it proved a challenge in years past. For many years, people traveling for spring terms of court between Corning and Piggott, the two county seats in Clay County, were forced to ride a train to Poplar Bluff, Missouri, and then catch the next morning’s train to the other courthouse. Flooding has been cited as one cause of the demise of Davidsonville and was partly responsible for a light voter turnout in the area when the proposed Arkansas Constitution of 1918 was defeated at the polls. Flooding has continued to this day, with severe flooding occurring in 2008 and 2011.

In early years, the State of Arkansas had no money to build infrastructure, so counties granted licenses to ferry operators and bridge builders, who privately financed the improvements and charged a toll. The first bridge at Powhatan, a flimsy swing bridge, was so operated. In 1938, Governor Carl Bailey, dedicated to removing all toll bridges in Arkansas, purchased rights to an existing ferry site just up the river. The state then used highway signs to divert traffic from the bridge. Because toll revenue dropped, the owner sued, winning at the trial level. While the case was on appeal, the parties settled, and the state paid the owner $68,000 for the bridge, which was later replaced by a safe structure. Today, five highway and four railroad bridges cross the river. The Black River Bridge at Pocahontas, built in 1934, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In May 2015, a new bridge spanning the Black River was opened at Black Rock, replacing the 1949 structure, which had been declared deficient by highway officials in 2010.

Many artifacts, photographs, and historical records showing industry and life on the river are on display at Davidsonville Historic State Park, the Powhatan Courthouse, the Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, the Randolph County Heritage Museum, and the Eddie Mae Herron Center.

For additional information:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (Summer 1980): 136–158.

Lawrence County, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (July 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


Rio Preto

The Black River has played a significant, but shifting, role in the lives of residents of northeast Arkansas. For the early Native Americans who lived in the area, it was an essential food and transportation source. This remained true for European settlers in the days before roads and railroads. The river was also an essential “highway” for the flatboats and river steamers that transported people and goods to and from the area. The river supported the development of local industry as the means for moving timber from the forests to places such as the Sallee Brothers Handle Mill in Pocahontas (Randolph County), while mussel fishing supplied pearls and mother of pearl for the local button-making industry for many years. While the river no longer functions as a means of transportation, it continues to be an important recreational site for hunting, fishing, hiking, bird watching, boating, and more. Batesville (Independence County) lawyer and writer “Fent” Noland stated in 1839, “The country up White River and the Black is destined to be the finest in Arkansas. Nature has done all she could—man will do the rest.”

The Black River’s source is in southeast Missouri. It is formed from three rivers, flows south, and crosses the Arkansas border in Clay County northeast of Corning. From there, it flows generally southwest and passes through the Dave Donaldson Black River Wildlife Management Area (WMA), through Randolph County to Pocahontas, and down to Davidsonville Historic State Park. It crosses into Lawrence County just above the town of Black Rock and continues southwest to the community of Powhatan (Lawrence County). From there, it flows south through the Shirey Bay–Rainey Brake WMA, crosses the southern border of Lawrence County, and forms the east-west border between Independence and Jackson counties. It finally turns southeast and enters the White River at Jacksonport (Jackson County), just north of Newport (Jackson County). Its Arkansas tributaries are the Little Black, Spring, and Strawberry rivers, and with its connection to the White River, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed. The Black has numerous sharp bends, many with colorful names, such as Deadman and Hole in the Wall in the Davidsonville Historic State Park area, along with the Box Factory, Battle Axe, and Dead Mule bends in the lower course of the river.

The river and the WMAs through which it flows provide abundant opportunities for hunters, fishermen, hikers, and wildlife watchers. The main species of fish within it are largemouth bass, crappie, and catfish. Duck, squirrel, deer, rabbit, and turkey hunting are popular along its course, and both the Donaldson and Shirey Bay WMAs offer fine green tree reservoir (woodland duck pond) habitat. There is also a population of furbearers such as beaver, muskrat, mink, and raccoon. Numerous bald and golden eagles winter around Lake Ashbaugh in the Donaldson WMA and can be sighted on or around the lake from November through February.

The Black and its surrounding area have a fascinating history, being first inhabited by pre-Columbian mound builders, then by the Osage and Cherokee. The first European settlers were French. In the days before railroads penetrated the area, flatboats and steamboats were essential to moving people and goods, offering the only “farm to market” transportation. The first steamboat to go up the Black River to Pocahontas was the Louro in 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas, and Jacksonport were important steamboat ports, and by the turn of the century, some forty-three steamboats traveled the river. One was the Idlewild, which is still in service at Louisville, Kentucky, having been rebuilt and renamed the Belle of Louisville. The first train arrived in Pocahontas in 1896, and the railroads gradually replaced river traffic. As late as the 1920s, however, steamboats and snag boats (used to clear river debris) were still in operation.

In earlier days, the Black River had a large population of river mussels. In 1897, Dr. J. H. Myers found a large ball pearl two miles north of Black Rock. This led to a “pearl rush,” and tent camps sprouted along the river. The shells provided mother of pearl, and Myers, with others, established a button factory at Black Rock three years later. According to Myers, this was the first button factory in the South. Area museums, such as the Randolph County Heritage Museum, have button-making tools and shells from which the buttons were cut. Pearl button manufacturing reached its peak in the mid-1940s. Overharvesting and silt in the river caused by farming and dredging have drastically reduced the mussel population. This, along with a decreased demand for mother of pearl due to the invention of plastic buttons and the zipper, virtually ended the pearling and button industries in the mid-twentieth century. However, a small number of “shellers” still gather mussels. They cut the shells into small pellets of mother of pearl for export to Asia, to be used in the cultured pearl industry.

The river has always been prone to flooding, and crossing it proved a challenge in years past. For many years, people traveling for spring terms of court between Corning and Piggott, the two county seats in Clay County, were forced to ride a train to Poplar Bluff, Missouri, and then catch the next morning’s train to the other courthouse. Flooding has been cited as one cause of the demise of Davidsonville and was partly responsible for a light voter turnout in the area when the proposed Arkansas Constitution of 1918 was defeated at the polls. Flooding has continued to this day, with severe flooding occurring in 2008 and 2011.

In early years, the State of Arkansas had no money to build infrastructure, so counties granted licenses to ferry operators and bridge builders, who privately financed the improvements and charged a toll. The first bridge at Powhatan, a flimsy swing bridge, was so operated. In 1938, Governor Carl Bailey, dedicated to removing all toll bridges in Arkansas, purchased rights to an existing ferry site just up the river. The state then used highway signs to divert traffic from the bridge. Because toll revenue dropped, the owner sued, winning at the trial level. While the case was on appeal, the parties settled, and the state paid the owner $68,000 for the bridge, which was later replaced by a safe structure. Today, five highway and four railroad bridges cross the river. The Black River Bridge at Pocahontas, built in 1934, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In May 2015, a new bridge spanning the Black River was opened at Black Rock, replacing the 1949 structure, which had been declared deficient by highway officials in 2010.

Many artifacts, photographs, and historical records showing industry and life on the river are on display at Davidsonville Historic State Park, the Powhatan Courthouse, the Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, the Randolph County Heritage Museum, and the Eddie Mae Herron Center.

For additional information:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (Summer 1980): 136–158.

Lawrence County, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (July 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


Rio Preto

The Black River has played a significant, but shifting, role in the lives of residents of northeast Arkansas. For the early Native Americans who lived in the area, it was an essential food and transportation source. This remained true for European settlers in the days before roads and railroads. The river was also an essential “highway” for the flatboats and river steamers that transported people and goods to and from the area. The river supported the development of local industry as the means for moving timber from the forests to places such as the Sallee Brothers Handle Mill in Pocahontas (Randolph County), while mussel fishing supplied pearls and mother of pearl for the local button-making industry for many years. While the river no longer functions as a means of transportation, it continues to be an important recreational site for hunting, fishing, hiking, bird watching, boating, and more. Batesville (Independence County) lawyer and writer “Fent” Noland stated in 1839, “The country up White River and the Black is destined to be the finest in Arkansas. Nature has done all she could—man will do the rest.”

The Black River’s source is in southeast Missouri. It is formed from three rivers, flows south, and crosses the Arkansas border in Clay County northeast of Corning. From there, it flows generally southwest and passes through the Dave Donaldson Black River Wildlife Management Area (WMA), through Randolph County to Pocahontas, and down to Davidsonville Historic State Park. It crosses into Lawrence County just above the town of Black Rock and continues southwest to the community of Powhatan (Lawrence County). From there, it flows south through the Shirey Bay–Rainey Brake WMA, crosses the southern border of Lawrence County, and forms the east-west border between Independence and Jackson counties. It finally turns southeast and enters the White River at Jacksonport (Jackson County), just north of Newport (Jackson County). Its Arkansas tributaries are the Little Black, Spring, and Strawberry rivers, and with its connection to the White River, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed. The Black has numerous sharp bends, many with colorful names, such as Deadman and Hole in the Wall in the Davidsonville Historic State Park area, along with the Box Factory, Battle Axe, and Dead Mule bends in the lower course of the river.

The river and the WMAs through which it flows provide abundant opportunities for hunters, fishermen, hikers, and wildlife watchers. The main species of fish within it are largemouth bass, crappie, and catfish. Duck, squirrel, deer, rabbit, and turkey hunting are popular along its course, and both the Donaldson and Shirey Bay WMAs offer fine green tree reservoir (woodland duck pond) habitat. There is also a population of furbearers such as beaver, muskrat, mink, and raccoon. Numerous bald and golden eagles winter around Lake Ashbaugh in the Donaldson WMA and can be sighted on or around the lake from November through February.

The Black and its surrounding area have a fascinating history, being first inhabited by pre-Columbian mound builders, then by the Osage and Cherokee. The first European settlers were French. In the days before railroads penetrated the area, flatboats and steamboats were essential to moving people and goods, offering the only “farm to market” transportation. The first steamboat to go up the Black River to Pocahontas was the Louro in 1829. Davidsonville, Powhatan, Pocahontas, and Jacksonport were important steamboat ports, and by the turn of the century, some forty-three steamboats traveled the river. One was the Idlewild, which is still in service at Louisville, Kentucky, having been rebuilt and renamed the Belle of Louisville. The first train arrived in Pocahontas in 1896, and the railroads gradually replaced river traffic. As late as the 1920s, however, steamboats and snag boats (used to clear river debris) were still in operation.

In earlier days, the Black River had a large population of river mussels. In 1897, Dr. J. H. Myers found a large ball pearl two miles north of Black Rock. This led to a “pearl rush,” and tent camps sprouted along the river. The shells provided mother of pearl, and Myers, with others, established a button factory at Black Rock three years later. According to Myers, this was the first button factory in the South. Area museums, such as the Randolph County Heritage Museum, have button-making tools and shells from which the buttons were cut. Pearl button manufacturing reached its peak in the mid-1940s. Overharvesting and silt in the river caused by farming and dredging have drastically reduced the mussel population. This, along with a decreased demand for mother of pearl due to the invention of plastic buttons and the zipper, virtually ended the pearling and button industries in the mid-twentieth century. However, a small number of “shellers” still gather mussels. They cut the shells into small pellets of mother of pearl for export to Asia, to be used in the cultured pearl industry.

The river has always been prone to flooding, and crossing it proved a challenge in years past. For many years, people traveling for spring terms of court between Corning and Piggott, the two county seats in Clay County, were forced to ride a train to Poplar Bluff, Missouri, and then catch the next morning’s train to the other courthouse. Flooding has been cited as one cause of the demise of Davidsonville and was partly responsible for a light voter turnout in the area when the proposed Arkansas Constitution of 1918 was defeated at the polls. As inundações continuaram até hoje, com graves inundações ocorrendo em 2008 e 2011.

Nos primeiros anos, o estado de Arkansas não tinha dinheiro para construir infraestrutura, então os condados concederam licenças a operadores de balsas e construtores de pontes, que financiaram as melhorias de forma privada e cobraram um pedágio. A primeira ponte em Powhatan, uma ponte oscilante frágil, foi operada dessa forma. Em 1938, o governador Carl Bailey, dedicado a remover todas as pontes com pedágio em Arkansas, comprou os direitos de um local de balsa existente rio acima. O estado então usou sinais de rodovia para desviar o tráfego da ponte. Como a receita do pedágio caiu, o proprietário processou, vencendo no nível de teste. Enquanto o caso estava em apelação, as partes entraram em acordo e o estado pagou ao proprietário US $ 68.000 pela ponte, que mais tarde foi substituída por uma estrutura segura. Hoje, cinco pontes rodoviárias e quatro ferrovias cruzam o rio. A Ponte do Rio Negro em Pocahontas, construída em 1934, está listada no Registro Nacional de Locais Históricos. Em maio de 2015, uma nova ponte sobre o rio Black foi inaugurada em Black Rock, substituindo a estrutura de 1949, que havia sido declarada deficiente pelos funcionários da rodovia em 2010.

Muitos artefatos, fotografias e registros históricos que mostram a indústria e a vida no rio estão em exibição no Davidsonville Historic State Park, no Powhatan Courthouse, no Jacksonport Courthouse Museum, no Randolph County Heritage Museum e no Eddie Mae Herron Center.

Para obter informações adicionais:
Dougan, Michael B. “The Doctrine of Creative Destruction: Ferry and Bridge Law in Arkansas.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 39 (verão de 1980): 136–158.

Condado de Lawrence, Arkansas: 1815–2001. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2001.

McGinnis, A. C. “Pearl Search Began in 1897.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (julho de 1968): 25–29.

West, Mabel. “Jacksonport, Arkansas: Its Rise and Decline.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 9 (Winter 1950): 231–258.


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